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"Ixodes holocyclus causes serious losses of livestock and losses and distress to pets and their owners; there may be at least 20,000 domestic animals in Australia affected by tick paralysis per year including at least 10,000 companion animals referred to veterinarians for treatment. Livestock animals are also vulnerable and the deaths of calves in northern New South Wales alone may be about 10,000 per year. There are many other livestock areas along the east coast of Australia where I. holocyclus occurs and adult cattle may also be affected by somewhat heavier infestations as are adult horses, sheep, goats and deer. However, juveniles such as piglets, foals, kids, lambs, and fawns, are at greatest risk. Annually, 100,000 animals or more may be affected to some degree. (BF Stone, unpublished data)."
"More than 80,000 cases of tick toxicosis are treated each year in eastern Australia. The worst affected area is Lismore on the NSW north coast, where the paralysis tick has spread through cattle and deer farms as well as many newly introduced livestock species such as alpacas (UTS, 1998)"
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